May 1, 2016




1. Research questions.


  • What is the relationship between Urban Form and Information and Communication technology (ICT)?


2. Theoretical background


  • Currently, there are “movements such as smart growth, new economy towns, livable communities, new regionalism, and a flurry of e-networked civic coalition”, which study “the urban life and the economic future of cities and regions in the information age” (p119)
  • There are “unprecedented organizational and networking capacities enabled by the explosion in computer power, the global reach of digital communication networks, and rapid technological change (Castells 1996b; Cohen, de Long, and Zysman 2000).”
  • Existing theory can`t explain the ICT-urban form because traditional theory follows just monocentric urban models. So, Currently, polycentric and dynamic form, and subcenters should be examined by new theory (‘blind field’) (p121).


3. Methodology


  • Revolutionary view > Evolutionary view (Evolutionary view는 economic view밖에 다루지 못하지만 Revolutionary view는 더 포괄적인 것을 다룰 수 있기 떄문에 사용.)
  • ICT-based transportation, Services and production outsourcing, ICT-induced travel, and ICT-intensive districts (4가지 기준으로 설명.)
  • Metropolitan Population & Employment redistribution views (2가지 기준으로 설명)
  • Deconcentration perspective & Regional restructuring perspective (2가지 관점으로 설명)


4. Result and Argument.


–> Globalized, 3,4차산업화, Polycentric (Edge City)


  • ICT-based transportation à Travel cost 감소 (Cheep, fast)
  • ICT-based retail à Services and production outsourcing 증가
  • Travel demand 증가
  • Agglomeration associated with high-tech regional clusters. (Ex) Silicon Valley)


  • Deconcentration perspective – Population view (low density living demand 증가, range of choice of cities 증가, Hierarch of job 심화)
  • Regional restructuring perspective – Employment distribution view (global cutthroat competition 심화, outsourcing 증가)
  • Job spread is faster than Population spread
  • Manufacturing is decentralized, but Idea-intensive industries is centralized.


5. Implication


  • Travel capacity가 travel demand에 비해 부족.
  • Decentralization & Agglomeration 함께 존재 à Polycentric, Compact city, Edge city.
  • 입지가 좋은 (Incentive like tax and subside, Transportation, ICT infra, Environment) 곳은 기업의 입지 고려에 영향.


Review_Extending the Temporal and Spatial Limits of Gentrification: A Research Agenda for Population Geographers.

May 1, 2016
  1. 논문 제목, 저자, 저널명

Extending the Temporal and Spatial Limits of Gentrification: A Research Agenda for Population Geographers, Darren P. Smith, International Journal of Population Geography.

  1. 연구질문
  • Understandings of demographic links between gentrification and in-migrants at particular stages of their life-course.
  1. 이론적 배경
  • Gentrification within a broader temporal perspective, and to unravel connections between migration dynamics and population transitions over the course of the process.
  • It is contended that processes and effects of gentrification should be examined within wider spatial frameworks, whereby migration flows of relatively affluent households are evaluated within the context of urbanization, suburbanization and counter-urbanization.


  1. 연구 가설: 연구 가설이 명시적으로 제시된 경우, 혹은 내용상 가설을 유추할 수 있는 경우


  • Displacement is related with the Gentrification in terms of socially affection and reason for migration.


  1. 연구 방법론


  • Population Geography: Information about the population change, but limit of contemporary process of societal change.
  • Longitudinal Study(LS) of the census.


  1. 분석의 범위(time/location/cases, 자료(data), 분석방법(methods of analysis)
  • Place: Various place: London, New York City, Canadian cities, Adelaide, Toronto.
  • Period: Various period: split of 1951~1991
  • Methods: Longitudinal Study(LS)
  1. 주요 연구결과: major findings of the study
  • Three types of migration framework
  • “Classic” Trajectory: in-migration of households that self-renovate property. In-migration of relatively affluent households that consume ‘ready-made’ property – which is produces by institutional actors.
  • “Household” Trajectory: In-migration of households that self-renovate property. In-migration of households that self-renovate property, or process may falter.
  • “Institutional” Trajectory: Property is produced by institutional actors. In-migration of relatively affluent households that consume ‘ready-made’ property-which is produced by institutional actors.


  • Gentrification
  • Migration
  • Population change
  • Life-course
  • Temporal process
  1. Additional Agenda (research question) about Gentrification for population geographers.
  • Where are the places of origin and destination of groups of gentrifiers and displaced lower-income households, respectively?
  • Do places of origin and destination and the distances moved, or the frequency of non-migration from the gentrified place, change over times as the process of gentrification unfolds?
  • Do these processes involve different in-, out-, intra- or non-migrant groups?
  • Why do gentrifier and displaced households move into and out of gentrified places?
  • Are migrationary motives and forces differentiated by social groups who move at different phases of the process of gentrification?
  • How do gentrifier and displaced households move into, out of or within the gentrified place, and do the practices change over time as the process unfolds?
  • Where (and why) do gentrifiers and non-migrants settle within gentrified places?
  • Do these internal enclaves and settlement patterns of (non)migrants change over time?

Review_Development of an Index of Subsidized Housing Availability and its Relationship to Housing Insecurity

April 30, 2016
  1. 논문 제목, 저자, 저널명
    Development of an Index of Subsidized Housing Availability and its Relationship to Housing Insecurity, Kathryn T. Bailey, John T. Cook, Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba, Patrick H. Casey, Mariana Chilton, Sharon M. Coleman, Diana Becker Cutts, Timothy C. Heeren, Ruth Rose-Jocobs, Maureen M. Black, and Deborah A. Frank, Housing Policy Debate, 2015
  2. 연구질문
    Relationship between housing insecurity and availability of housing that is affordable to low-income households.
  3. 이론적 배경
    Quality and stability of housing are known determinants of health and poor housing conditions and a lack of stable housing have been associated with adverse child health outcomes.
  4. 연구가설
    “We hypothesize that low-income households with very young children living in cities with fewer subsidized housing units relative to the aggregate need will have higher rates of housing insecurity.” (p. 4)
  5. 연구 방법론
    Subsidized Housing Availability Index ( SHA Index) : total number of subsidized units available in an area relative to the demand from low-income households with a head of household less than 62 years of age paying more than 30% of their income to rent.
    Four separate dichotomous housing insecurity outcome variables in this study
    -Households that moved two or more times in the year before the interview, described as having multiple moves;
    -Households whose members were temporarily living with other people because of economic difficulties or, using the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development definition, when there were more than two people per bedroom at the time of interview
    -Households that reported being behind on rent payments at any time in the past year
    -Currently homeless families
  6. 주요연구결과
    -29% were overcrowded, 25% had been behind on rent in the past year, 3% had made multiple moves in the past year, and 3% were currently homeless.
    -The harmful health and development impacts on children associated with housing insecurity can have serious adverse effects on whether they realize their potential, including readiness to learn, academic success, educational attainment, and ability to become productive members of the workforce and civil society.

Review_School Quality, Residential Choice, and the U.S. Housing Bubble

April 30, 2016
  1. 논문 제목, 저자, 저널명
    School Quality, Residential Choice, and the U.S. Housing Bubble, Michael Insler & Kurtis Swope, Housing Policy Debate, 2016 Vol.26, No.1, 53-79
  2. 연구질문
    The strong, bubble-era pursuit of good schools may have played a role in the housing bubble’s expansion.
  3. 이론적 배경
    Around 90% of K-12 students attend public schools, with 75% attending an assigned school and 15% attending a chosen public schools.
  4. 연구가설
    -“For the purposes of our analysis, we define the prebubble period as 2000-2002, the bubble period as 2003-2006, and the bust period as 2007-2009.” (p. 54)
    -“We show that homebuyers who selected their homes primarily to access good schools paid more than comparable homebuyers who purchased their homes for other reasons, and the difference was significantly larger during the key bubble period” (p. 54)
  5. 연구 방법론
    -American Housing Survey : characterize the association between housing expenditures and the pursuit of good schools over the years before, during and immediately after the U.S. housing bubble. Information on the purchase price of the home, the size of the homeowner’s mortgage, and characteristics of the home, the homeowner, the household, and the neighborhood. Providing sampling weights; each housing unit in the sample represents about 2000 housing units in the United States.
    -Three types of analysis : (1) OLS regressions on the sample stratified by the three bubble periods, (2) OLS regressions on the full sample with interaction terms for each bubble period and primary reason for home selection, and (3) propensity score matching under bubble period stratifications.
    -Propensity Score Matching : Utilize a similar treatment and control group breakdown as in the previous setting.
  6. 주요연구결과
    -Homebuyers who primarily chose their neighborhood to access good schools paid more for their homes during the key bubble period relative to buyer who chose their neighborhood for other reasons and relative to other “good schools-favoring” buyers from before or after the bubble.
    -Mortgage-to-income ratios were also higher for the “good schools cohort” specifically during the bubble period.

Review_Information Technology (IT) and Urban Form:An Annotated Bibliography of the Urban Deconcentration and Economic Restructuring Literatures

April 25, 2016

Information Technology (IT) and Urban Form: An Annotated Bibliography of the Urban Deconcentration and Economic Restructuring Literatures

Ivonne Audirac

Jennifer Fitzgerald

Journal of Planning Literature, Vol. 17, No. 4 (May 2003)

*연구가 아닌 기존 연구의 분류, 시사점입니다.


1. Research questions


  • What is the effects of Information Technology on Urban?
  • How to measure it?


2. Theoretical background


  • There are several keywords for relation IT and Urban form: information technology, telecommunications, telematics, urban form, cities, and urban development
  • “Movements such as Smart Growth, the Congress of the New Urbanism, New-Economy Towns, Livable Communities, New Regionalism, Regional Stewardship, and a flurry of e-networked civic coalitions typify the regional and growth management manifestos developed in response to new sociospatial realities besieging urban life and the economic future of cities and region (p481)” because of IT-embedded social networks.
  • There are some changes like globally more intricately connected, terriotorally more loose and fragmented, polycentric and complex, and down the urban hierarchy and abroad (p481) based on IT.


3. Method of Classification

3.1 Deconcentration School


  • Emphasize the travel substitution effects of technology

(Travel cost 감소 –> Periphery, Sprawl 증가)

  • Gradual disappearance of urban agglomeration
  • Need for agglomeration of specialized managerial activities at strategic sites
  • Edge cities


3.2 Restructuring School


  • Emphasize the technology`s face-to-face generation effects

(Face-to-face 증가 –> Local-global interplay 증가)

  • “Contemporary sociotechnical regimes have made possible the reshaping of firms, labor-capital relations, and the global mobility of capital (p483)” based on Marxist political economy and regulation theories

Ex) ‘Multinational corporation’

  • Renewed persistence of urban centrality


4. Classification of researches


  • ‘New Urban form’ based on restructuring school
  • ‘Economic, Spatial, and Travel synergies’ based on deconcentration school and transportation studies

Ex) Logistics (Part of the supply chain process), Aerotropolis (항공 수단을 고려한 새로운 urban form)

  • ‘Accessibility’

Ex) Sustainable accessibility (Tragedy related to Congested transportation networks)

Dimensions of accessibility (Stresses Multidimensional complexity of accessibility in the information age)

The way accessibility to jobs and opportunity

Intrametropolitan accessibility

  • ‘IT, Telecommunications Policy, and Planning


5. Implication


  • 더욱 사실에 근접하고 정확한 관계에 대한 분석 필요.
  • 균형 필요 between ‘Deconcentration’ and ‘Restructuring’ views



Review_Measuring Gentrification and Displacement in Great London

April 11, 2016
  1. 논문 제목, 저자, 저널명

Measuring Gentrification and Displacement in Great London, Rowland Atkinson, Urban Studies, Vol.37, No 1, 149-165, 2000

  1. 연구질문
  • How interrelate with Gentrification and Displacement?
  • What is the Displacement’s socially effects?
  1. 이론적 배경
  • improvement of living conditions did not benefit the original residents
  • Gentrification and Displacement are exceedingly hard to distinguish.
  • Select the proxy variables for gentrification and displacement was largely based on the preceding displacement and gentrification literature.
  1. 연구 가설: 연구가설이 명시적으로 제시된 경우, 혹은 내용상 가설을 유추할 수 있는 경우
  • Displacement is related with the Gentrification in terms of socially affection and reason for migration.
  1. 연구방법론
  • Longitudinal Study(LS): It allows the life-course of a 1 percent sample of individuals and their families from the census to be tracked over time, in both their status and geographical location. At the random sample, it is very reliable in its replication of the distributions to be found in the larger census and key events such as cancer, deaths and migrations are also added to the sample.
  • Categorizing the Gentrification regions as G1, G2, G3, G4
  • Separating the cause of the displacement: Elderly, Unskilled-labour, Unemployed, Inactive, Lone-parent.


  1. 분석의 범위(time/location/cases, 자료(data), 분석방법(methods of analysis)
  • Place: London as separating for the ROEW(Rest of England and Wales), ROSE(Rest of South and East), ROL(Rest of London).
  • Period: 1981~1991
  • Data: Censuses Data (1981-1991)
  • Methods: Longitudinal Study(LS)
  1. 주요 연구결과: major findings of the study
  • Displacement cause a socially inequality for vulnerability groups and social cost, likely to be in the form of increased housing need, overcrowding.
  • Using a re-aggregated geography of ward-level change, the interaction between professionalization and other migratory changes was more closely linked to the processes of gentrification and displacement.
  • Displacement removed the social problems rather than solved.
  • Unskilled and Unemployed and Lone parents are less likely to related with the Gentrification, comparing to the Professionals, Inactive, Working classes, and Elderly.

Review_Community Resilience : An Indicator of Social Sustainability

April 11, 2016

1. 논문 제목, 저자, 저널 : Community Resilience : An Indicator of Social Sustainability, Kristen Magis, Society & Natural Resources, 23 : 401-416

2. 연구질문 : What is community resilience, and its dimensions; eight primary characteristics, its self assessment..

3. 이론적 배경
-Community resilience : Determines the ability to mobilize and respond to stress successfully, essential to social sustainability.
-Eight primary characteristics : Community resources, development of community resources, engagement of community resources, active agents, collective action, strategic action, equity and impact.

4. 연구가설
-Make 10 focus groups with 60 participants to discuss ideas, recommendations, questions, concerns.

5. 연구 방법론
(1) Literature and praxis review : providing Cross-disciplinary review and catalyzing a conversation with Roundtable focus groups

-Systems disruption and response : resilience discourse

-Paradigmatic shift in understanding resilience

-Active agency of communities in community resilience

-Community resources and the development of community resilience : “Communities, they assert, need to learn to live with change and uncertainty, and actively build the capacity to thrive in that context.” (p. 405)

-Community capitals : community resources (financial capital & social capital)

-Community capacity : “Community’s ability to engage in collective action, and to address a variety of circumstances through use of various community assets.” (p.407)

(2) Roundtable focus groups : Participants in creative brainstorming on specific questions and to generate clear and detailed suggestions.

(3) Data analysis : From the focus group discussions, etc.

6. 주요연구결과

(1) Community Resources

-To understand the opportunities and limitations of the natural environment.

-People to believe that change is inevitable and can adapt to change.

(2) Development of Community Resources

-New career formed in the community

-Preparing important work habit from the youth, becoming involved citizens

(3) Engagement of community resources

-“Effectiveness of community government in dealing with important problems facing the community

-Extent to which community organizations contribute leadership and volunteers to community endeavors

-Extent to which communities affected by change generate ideas to address the change that are new and that involve recombining resources in different and creative ways.” (p.411)

(4) Active Agents

-Ability to affect the community’s well-being

-Involvement in various groups and events

-Community’s self-reliance dealing with major issues and changes affecting the community

(5) Collective Action

-Facilitate collaboration with groups who are working for the community objectives

-Diverse perspectives and reflect cultural differences when decision-making

-People to share knowledge, expertise when facing the change

(6) Strategic Action

-Community resources that used in planning community endeavors

-Generating a communitywide commitment along local planning processes

-Finding resources that support its endeavors

-“Opportunities of people to share lessons, unresolved questions, ideas and innovations from their experiences.”(p. 412)

(7) Equity

-Give the chance to access to the community’s natural resources to various people

-Involving various people in planning and leadership of community

-Welcoming and including various groups to community organization


-Changes in community resources, external contacts, collaboration, participation, community’s capacity respond to change

Review_A typology of street patterns

April 10, 2016

A typology of street patterns

Remi Louf and Marc Barthelemy1,2



1. Research questions

  • How can we quantitatively compare cites?


2. Theoretical background

  • “The classification of street networks has previously been addressed by the space syntax community and a good account can be found in the book by Marshall”
  • Classification of street network can`t consider lots of things like width, shape, and so on. But Classification of blocks can consider shape, surface of area, disposition of blocks, and so on.                   (street network 보다는 block을 고려하는 것이 분류하기에 적합함.)


3. Methodology

  • The form (or shape) factor (circle과 얼마나 비슷한 모양인지)
  • Probability conditional distribution (어떤 surface area A일 때, 그러한 shape를 갖을 확률)
  • ‘Fingerprint’
  • Distance between two cites a and b


4. Data

  • OpenStreetMap database –> Obtaining the street networks
  • Global Administrative Areas database –> Restricting to the city center
  • 131 cities in the world


5. Results

Block size Block shape
Group1 medium Square & Regular rectangles
Group2 small diverse
Group3 medium diverse
Group4 small Square & Regular rectangles
  • All European cities (except Athens, Greece), 68% America cities follow the Group3.
  • We can quantitatively compare cites by shape and area of blocks.


6. Limit

  • Age of the city 고려해야함.
  • Ex) planning, modification

Review_From paths to blocks: New measures for street patterns

April 3, 2016

From paths to blocks: New measures for street patterns

Marc Barthelemy

Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 0(0) 1–16


1. Research Questions

  • How to tract the deformation of the street networks?
  • How to quantitatively classify the street networks?


2. Theoretical Background

  • “Several studies have shown that road networks not only play a central role in the spatial organization of urban areas (Cardillo et al., 2006; Lammer et al., 2006), but are important for the dynamical processes occurring on them (Balcan et al., 2009; Barthelemy, 2011; Bettencourt et al., 2007; Porta et al., 2011) and for the evolution of urban systems in general.”
  • Difference between ‘shortest paths’ and ‘simplest paths’.


3. Methodology

3.1 ‘Betweenness Centrality(BC)’ is measure of ‘Hub of the network’ and ‘Contribution of a link to the organization of flows in the network’

  • # of shortest(s~t) 중에서 link e를 통과할 확률
  • link e가 새로 생겼을 때 variation of betweenness


3.2 ‘Simplicity index’ is comparing simplest path length to shortest length

  • l* is simplest path length, l is shortest length.
  • S > 1: not efficient


3.3 ‘Simplicity profile’ 는 ‘Simplicity index’ 와 비슷하지만 nodes간 거리까지 고려.

  • N(d) is # of pair nodes
  • 거리↓  –>  l* = l 가능성 높음 à S(d)
  • 거리↑  –> l* = l 가능성 높음 à S(d)
  • 거리 중간쯤 –>  l* > l 가능성 높음 à S(d) > 1


 3.4 ‘The form(or shape) factor is the ratio between the area of the block and the area Ac of the circumscribed circle C

  • Always smaller than one
  • ↓ –> Anisotropic
  • The distance between two cities and for the area


4. Data

  • Groane (Italy, 1833~2007)
  • Paris (France, 1789~2010)
  • Australian highway, UK rail, bologna street, Oxford street, Nantes`island street, and Nantes` island water
  • Buenos Aires, Athens, New Orleans, and Mogadishu
  • Topographical and photogrammetrical data (GIS)
  • OpenStreetMap database, Global Administrative Areas database


5. Results

5.1 Betweenness Centrality

  • ↑ (링크가 생겨도 BC 차이 없음:densification) –> link increases
  • ↓ (링크 생기면 BC 줄어듬: Expansion of the network toward previously nonurbanized area) –> link decreases
  • –> Tract the deformation of Street network


5.2 Simplicity profile

  • Natural networks (leaves, slime mould, insect wings: 하나의 목적으로 쓰임) –> hierarchy less strict –> Street organization↑ –> S(d) graph 가 peak point를 한 개만 갖음
  • Artificial networks (roads, highways, railways: 복잡한 목적으로 쓰임) –> S(d) graph가 peak point를 여러 개 갖음
  • –> Classify differences in organization of urban system & biological system


5.3 Blocks

  • D(a,b)
  • –> Classify based on Block`s Size & Shape


6. Conclusion

  • –> We can tract dynamic street network and quantitatively categorize the street network.

Review_Public Open Space and Walking: The Role of Proximity, Perceptual Qualities of the Surrounding Built Environment, and Street Configuration

March 26, 2016


Public Open Space and Walking: The Role of Proximity, Perceptual Qualities of the Surrounding Built Environment, and Street Configuration

Mohammad Javad Koohsari1, Justyna Anna Karakiewicz1, and Andrew T. Kaczynski2

Environment and Behavior

45(6) 706–736

© The Author(s) 2012

1. Research Question

  • Is POS (Public Open Space)-related walking related to proximity and attractiveness of POS?
  • Is POS-related walking related to perceptual qualities of the surrounding built environment?
  • Is POS-related walking related to street configuration?

2. Theoretical background

  • “These studies have docu­mented associations between multiple types of PA (Physical Activity) and various aspects of the built environment, including residential density (Frank, Kerr, Chapman, & Sallis, 2007; Wilson et al., 2011), street connectivity (Boone-Heinonen, Popkin, Song, & Gordon-Larsen, 2010; Moudon et al., 2006), land-use mix (McConville, Rodríguez, Clifton, Cho, & Fleischhacker, 2011; Troped, Wilson, Matthews, Cromley, & Melly, 2010), neighborhood aesthetics (Inoue et al., 2010; Kaczynski, 2010), and presence of sidewalks (Alfonzo, Boarnet, Day, McMillan, & Anderson, 2008; Inoue et al., 2009)”
  • “such as aesthetics, safety from crime, traffic, and the availability of facilities for walking (e.g., sidewalks, trails) can affect the frequency and duration of walking (Duncan, Spence, & Mummery, 2005; Kaczynski, 2010; Owen, Humpel, Leslie, Bauman, & Sallis, 2004; Parra et al., 2011; Shigematsu et al., 2009; Wallmann, Bucksch, & Froboese, 2011)”
  • “Space syntax theory states that spatial configuration influences the distribution of movement within a network system”

3. Methodology

  • GIS
  • Marshall`s street configuration typology (type of street configuration is divided with A.B.C.D)
  • Self-administered questionnaire
  • Binary logistic regression model
  • Linear regression model

4. Data

  • The socioeconomic index for area (SEIFA) index of advantages/disadvantages (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008)
  • VICMAP address dataset
  • Type of land use by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment.
  • Melbourne, Australia in 2011

5. Results

5.1 Frequency & duration

  • Participants (57%) reported some weekly waling to or within POS.
  • The average waling time was 144 min per week (SD = 117 min).

5.2 At least some walking to or within POS

Some walking to/within POS
OR 95% CI
Closeness to POS 0.65 [0.33, 1.28]
Factors related to POS
Nearest POS 1.00 [0.99, 1.00]
Number of POS within 1 km 1.01 [0.99, 1.03]
Total area of POS within 1 km 1.00 [0.99, 1.01]
Attractiveness of POS 0.92 [0.65, 1.30]
Perceptual qualities of the surrounding built environment
Facilities for walking 0.65 [0.29, 1.44]
Aesthetics 2.17* [1.04, 4.52]
Safety from traffic 3.28** [1.43, 7.55]
Safety from crime 2.17* [1.02, 4.61]
Street configuration
Local integration 0.66* [0.46, 0.95]
Control 0.72* [0.56, 0.93]

Table 2. Association of POS and Neighborhood Variables with Some Walking to or Within POS.

  • people living in a household with a child less than 12 years (OR = 4.62, 95% CI = [2, 10.66]) or who owned a dog (OR = 2.47, 95% CI = [1.10, 5.57]) were significantly more likely to walk to or within POS (12살 보다 어린아이, 개를 갖고 있는 사람은 한번이라도 나갈 확률이 더큼)
  • (+) Aesthetics, Safety from traffic, safety from crime
  • (-) Local integration, Control (integration, control이 높으면 grid, 낮으면 cul-de-sac)
  • (관계 없음) Closeness to POS, Nearest POS, Number of POS within 1km, Total Area of POS within 1km, Attractiveness of POS

5.3 Amount of walking

Amount of total walking to/within POS
Standardized β t value
Closeness to POS −0.03 −0.33
Factors related to POS
Nearest POS −0.08 −0.89
Number of POS within 1 km 0.12 1.54
Total area of POS within 1 km −0.01 0.90
Attractiveness of POS 0.01 1.28
Perceptual qualities of the surrounding built environment
Facilities for walking 0.20* 2.16
Aesthetics −0.16 −1.68
Safety from traffic −0.17 −1.68
Safety from crime 0.23* 2.23
Street configuration
Local integration −0.13 −1.26
Control 0.21* 2.12

Table 3. Association of POS and Neighborhood Variables With Amount of Walking To or Within POS.

  • (+) Facilities for walking, Safety from crime
  • (-) Control

6. Implication

6.1 Proximity or distance to POS is unrelated to residents` PA levels

6.2 Perceptual Qualities of the surrounding Built Environment (거주민이 어떻게 생각하는지)

  • (+) Safety from crime –> any walking, the amount of walking à Necessity of safety from crime improvement
  • (+) Facilities for walking –> the amount of walking (적어도 한번 나가는 것에는 영향 없지만, 한번 나가면 나가는 수에 영향) –> Necessity of physical improvements and Promotion)
  • (+) Safety from traffic & Aesthetic –> any walking (적어도 한번 나가는 것에 영향 있지만, 나가는 수에는 영향 없음)

6.3 Street Configuration

  • (-) Local integration, control –> leisure walking (connectivity가 올라가면 transportation walking은 증가하지만, leisure walking은 감소)
  • Ex) cul-de-sacs은 leisure walking에는 (+)영향
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